Cross country Skiing

The Free essays given on our site were donated by anonymous users and should not be viewed as samples of our custom writing service. You are welcome to use them to inspire yourself for writing your own term paper. If you need a custom term paper related to the subject of Other Essays or Cross country Skiing, you can hire a professional writer here in just a few clicks.

Cross-Country skiing is a sport and technique of traveling over snow-covered surfaces with the feet attached to long, narrow runners known as skis. The skis distribute the skier's weight over a larger area, preventing the skier from sinking into the snow. Three kinds of skiing have developed: Alpine, Nordic, and Freestyle. Alpine, or downhill, skiing is movement down steep slopes; in races, victory is decided by elapsed time. Nordic, or Cross-Country, skiing, is movement over relatively level surfaces; racing involves covering short and long, prearranged courses in the shortest time. An important subcategory of Nordic ski races is ski jumping, movement down a vertical surface (called a ski jump); the distance jumped and the skier's flight are evaluated. Since the 1980s freestyle skiing, for fun and in competition, has become popular. Equipment The basic equipment, although varies somewhat, is essentially similar for all types of skiing. Skis are made of strips of shaped wood, metal, or synthetic material that can be attached to a specially designed ski boot; the hard resistant surface of the skis, maintained by application of special ski waxes, produces high speed in moving over packed snow. Skis vary in length according to the skier's height and can reach 1.8 to 2.1 m (6 to 7 ft) long. Ski width also varies, from 7 to 10 cm (3 to 4 in) in the front, tapering slightly inward in the middle and widening at the rear; the front tip of the ski curves upward. Downhill skis are shorter and wider than cross-country skis. Flat-soled, ankle-high boots are an important item of equipment; rigid leather and plastic boots are used for downhill skiing and lighter, more flexible boots, with nylon or leather uppers, for cross-country. The downhill boot is attached to the ski by a binding that clips at the heel and toe and affords flexibility and safety in the event of a fall. The cross-country boot attaches to the ski by a toe binding, leaving the heel free to flex up and down for the kickoff step. Ski poles, commonly 1.2 to 1.5 m (4 to 5 ft) in length, are used for balance and for movement; they are made of light metal tubing, with handgrips, straps and a small disk at the bottom that allows a firm hold in the snow. Cross-Country Skiing Cross-country (Nordic) skiing places greater emphasis on endurance and strength, with less of an emphasis on speed. Although, in competitions, the average time for a 15-km (9-mi) race is about 50 minutes; for the longer course of 48 km (30 mi) or so, a time of 2 hours, 45 minutes is regularly achieved. Conventional distances to be covered vary from 5 to 50 km (3 to 30 mi) or more in length. Courses are distinguished with colored markers, so that competitors can follow the same approximate route. Altitude variations are modest because the essential movement is horizontal and not vertical. Historically, cross-country racing developed out of the need for a mode of transportation. In its non-competitive aspects, it is a sport in which old and young alike may participate. Although not well adapted to heavily wooded areas, cross- country is practicable throughout the world and, unlike alpine skiing, does not depend on special slopes, mechanical ski tows, and the use of artificial snow. The fundamental cross-country stride combines a kickoff step with one foot and a gliding step with the other. These steps alternate smoothly and rapidly; the ski pole in one hand is planted down as the opposite leg begins its kickoff. Several variations to this basic stride allow for upward and downward movement and necessary maneuverability and provide for some degree of rest from continuous exertion. In the skating technique, developed in the 1980s, a skier moves in a side-to-side motion, pushing off on the inside of the ski. Waxing To ensure easy movement over the snow, skier's rub an application of special non-friction ski waxes. This allows them to slide easily and effortlessly over the snow. Without wax skiing would be difficult and tedious, and only slow speeds could be obtained during perfect weather conditions. Waxes for Cross-Country skiing are designed for different temperatures, and weather conditions. For example a wax could be designed for: Temperatures below -20, from -10 to -20, or above -10; Warm and slushie conditions, or cold and icy conditions. To apply ski wax, you find the desired wax according to weather conditions. You then rub the wax on the bottom side of the ski, making sure to cover all of it. Then to smooth the wax to on the ski you rub the surface with a wooden cork-like material. going over everywhere you waxed. History of Skiing The use of some kind of equipment for travel over snow is ancient. Greek historians mention skins, sliders, or shoes used for this purpose, and similar references occur in Norse myths. The earliest skis of which any record exists were found in bogs in Sweden and Finland. They are thought to be between 4000 and 5000 years old and consist of elongated curved frames covered with leather.

Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper

Related Essays on Other Essays

The Overcoat (Report on Symbolisim)

Symbols are seen everyday in people's lives, whether they symbol is seen frequently, or rarely seen, whether the symbol is lucid or obscured, the symbol always has a meaning, and this is apparent in...

read more
King Lear: Extended Speeches

An Old Man <br> In William Shakespeare's play King Lear, three of Lear's extended speeches relate <br>to the play as a whole and are significant in revealing his character. In Lear's extended <br>...

read more
Cloning - dolly and her making

For the last few decades, cloning was a fictitious idea that lay deep within the pages of some sci-fi novels. The very idea that cloning could one day become reality was thought to be a scientific imp...

read more
Nathaniel Hawthorne

English, Hawthorne: Judging Others Some consider judgement the greatest sin that man can commit; Judgement occurs when one man criticizes another, or nature. In Nathaniel Hawthorne's Young Goodman ...

read more
The Crucible

THE CRUICIBLE The typical classical hero is high ranking, has admirable traits and dies as a result of some fatal flaw. In The Crucible, Arthur Miller presents John Proctor, as a character who is w...

read more
Mark Twain 6 page research paper

Samuel Langhorne Clemens, also know as Mark Twain, was born in 1835 and died in 1910 (Student Handbook 379). He is best known as an American humorist and for his realistic view of America in the ninet...

read more