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MICROPROCESSOR REVIEW 1) Define each of the following terms a) MICROPROCESSOR a A computer with its entire CPU contained on one integrated circuit. b) PIXEL a Short for picture element. A pixel is the smallest logical unit of visual information c) that can be used to build an image. Pixels are the little squares that can be seen when a graphics image is enlarged. The more pixels in an image, the better its resolution. c) SECTOR a Disk storage is organized in sectors, which are pie-shaped slices, and tracks, which are concentric rings. d) VDU (Visual Display Unit) a A computer terminal with monitor and keyboard. e) KEYBOARD BUFFER a A memory area that stores keystrokes when a typist is too fast, to allow the program to catch up. f) MACHINE CYCLE a The cycle of four steps a computer's central processing unit must complete each time a machine language instruction is given: * Fetching the instruction from the main memory * Decoding it * Executing the instruction * Storing the results g) MODEM a A peripheral input/output device. h) SVGA (Super Video Graphic Array) a A type of video display standard for colour monitors. i) CHARACTER MATRIX a An arrangement of pixels that is used to display a character. j) NON-IMPACT PRINTER a A printer that prints without striking the paper (EX: laser printer or an inkjet printer). k) FORMATTING A DISK a Dividing a disk into tracks and sectors. l) ROM (Read Only Memory) a Memory that can be read but not changed. Read-only memory is non-volatile storage; it holds its contents even when the power is turned off. Data is placed in ROM only once, and stays there permanently. m) RAM (Random Access Memory) a The working memory of the computer. RAM is the memory used for storing data temporarily while working on it, running application programs, etc. n) CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory) a An optical disk that is physically the same as an audio CD, but contains computer data. o) AUXILLARY STORAGE a Disk drives, hard disk, floppy disk, CD-ROM. p) RESOLUTION a number of dots per square inch required to produce a high-quality image in printing or on a computer display screen. q) DATA FLOW a Transfer of data. s) CLOCK SPEED a The clock rate of a computer is determined by the frequency of vibration of a quartz crystal which sends pulses to the CPU. t) VIRTUAL MEMORY a A way of using disk storage space to make the computer work as if it had more memory. W

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