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Euthanasia submitted by ??? Euthanasia, as defined in Microsoft Encarta 95', is "the act of painlessly ending the life of a person for reasons of mercy." This paper will examine the history of euthanasia and the issues surrounding assisted suicide. There are as many reasons for supporting assisted suicide as there are reasons to not support it. However one looks at this topic, we will all be confronted with this in one way or another. Medical technology has allowed life to be sustained longer than anyone would have imagined. According to a former church moderator, Walter Farquaharson, the issue of euthanasia "is not an issue any one of us can remove ourselves from. It touches all of us. And if it hasn't, it will (McAteer J13). Euthanasia, or also known as assisted suicide, was an accepted practice in earlier civilizations. It was considered legally and morally to be a permissible way to die. However, it has been a hot topic for the last several years. At first it was just another topic, but later became a political issue that would affect courts and elections by dividing those who support euthanasia and those who consider it a form of murder. It also has been a topic that has divided the Christian community. A movement began in the 1970's when Americans started to demand "death with dignity" (Worsnop 1). In the event of a terminal illness or injury, people were refusing life-sustaining treatment to preserve life, especially life without quality. Public opinion overall supports some form of assisted suicide. Because of this support, most states have some form of legislation that allows for "living wills" and "power of attorney for health care" to be planned for in advance of a person's need to consider this (Bulletin 95-2). Euthanasia is illegal in all states except Oregon. In many states, there are appeals and court action because some courts declared the laws unconstitutional. Wisconsin Statutes, Section 940.12 states, "Whoever with intent that another take his or her own life assists such person to commit suicide is guilty of a Class D felony" (Bulletin 95-2). Wisconsin does not recognize a doctor, or other individual, to end a life. It is considered an act of murder and is punishable by law. The penalty is imprisonment up to five years and a fine of up to $10,000, or both. However, there are two companion bills that were introduced in Wisconsin in 1995. Assembly Bill 174 and Senate Bill 90 permit some individuals to make written requests to ask for medication from a physician to end their own life. The patient must have a terminal illness and not be expected to live longer than six months. The physician must be the one who is making the primary health care decisions for that patient, but another physician and a psychiatrist must also be consulted. There are many steps and safeguards in place that must be done before this can happen. There is also time allowed for the individual to change his/her mind (Bulletin 95-2). Most opponents of euthanasia are from the Christian community. For example, the Roman Catholic Church considers it murder and illegal. The church feels that life should be preserved and that taking one's own life is considered suicide and punishable by God. It does, however, allow a seriously ill person the right to refuse extraordinary medical procedures to preserve life (McAteer J13). Other opponents feel that it can get out of control and become an abuse of power. Just who can decide who can live and die is an issue that reminds some people of Nazi Germany where those in power decided that individuals who were no longer valuable to the community were killed (Encarta). Many doctors are also troubled by this issue, because they say a creed that they will preserve life at all costs. This creed was written long before modern medicine and new life-saving techniques were available. Quantity of life is sometimes exchanged for quality of life. Opponents also fear that because of the increased success that doctors have had in transplanting human organs, euthanasia will be practiced to sacrifice some weaker individuals so that stronger individuals needing transplants will be given them (Encarta). Some elderly patients also feel that they may be sacrificed before they are really ready to die. There is also the issue of assisted suicide being performed on individuals who really are not as sick as they were diagnosed. Many patients who are diagnosed with a terminal illness live longer than was predicted. Some even may be "cured" because of new medical procedures and medicines (Worsnop 153). Many of these arguments have validity, but should be balanced with one's right to choose life or death. In a poll taken in January 1991, sixty-six percent of the people surveyed felt that a person suffering " great pain" or with "no hope of improvement " has the right to end their own life (Worsnop 148). Euthanasia should be an acceptable practice when someone has been diagnosed with a terminal illness and there is no chance for a decent quality of life. By 1990, forty states had passed laws that made "living wills" legal. These wills make it legal for a competent individual to decide in advance that they wish to withhold life- support systems and medicines that would sustain their lives (Encarta). If an individual is declared "brain dead" by a licensed doctor, it is at the discretion of the family members to terminate the life-support system. Beside the medical ethics issue, there is also the cost of keeping individuals on life-support systems when there is no quality of life. Many times, the individuals are in a coma and can live a long time, being totally unaware of their surroundings

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