Slavery: The Peculiar Institution

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The Peculiar Institution When the Africans came to America, a new culture began to develop; African-American culture, the culture of the slave. All aspects of life for these imported people began to change in many ways. In this essay we will follow the migration of a slave to an American home, and their home, family, and work lives. Slavery was well known in many areas of Africa, including eastern Nigeria, the Gold Coast, and western Angola during the 1600's, where the people were forced to cultivate land. From these and other areas, about ten million African slaves were kidnapped, usually from peaceful tribes because members of warrior tribes defended themselves to the death, and forced to march to the Atlantic Coast, which, at times, was over one hundred miles. Those who were too weak to keep up were murdered ("The March to the Coast," p. 1). Once to the coast, the slaves were kept in dungeon-like pits until they could be packed on the slave ships. Sometimes they had to spend months chained up in these confinements ("The Slave Pits/Dungeons", p. 1). The voyage from Africa to the Americas across the Middle Passage was a nightmare that had to be endured for months at a time. The intense pressure to obtain the greatest profit out of the trade, no matter what cost to the slave, forced traders to allow inhumane conditions. Slaves were wedged on the lower decks of ships like logs and were chained together. There was almost no room to sit, stand, or lie down. the space given to an adult male, five and a half feet wide by sixteen inches in width, was no larger than a grave. The slaves often slept on their sides, their naked bodies fitting together in a spoon-like fashion. They were allowed on the deck for a few minutes a day for fresh air and exercise, which was usually just jumping at their masters instruction. The holds were dark, filthy, slimy, and they stank of human waste. The food quickly spoiled and the water became stagnant. Slaves who felt sick were simply tossed overboard to prevent an epidemic (). Once on American soil, slaves were herded to a stockade to be sold. There they thoroughly examined by eager merchants and purchased. During these slave auctions, families were torn apart, mothers separated from children, husbands from wives. The auctions were so unpleasant that white women were rarely found in the area. The "black horses", as they were often called, were then taken to their new homes (John W. Blassingame, p 15). Upon arrival, the slaves had to sign a contract no less than six pages long. The rules and expectations were clearly stated in these documents. If the slave refused to sign, they severely beaten. Most of the slaves could not read, but quickly signed to prevent flogging. Where the slaves were sent, their looks, sex, and the season determined what types of work they would do. Men and women that were sent to a plantation would probably work as field hands, sowing, maintaining, and harvesting sugarcane, corn, cotton, tobacco, or other crops. Field hands would rise before sunrise, prepare their morning meal, feed the livestock, and then rush to the fields by the time the sun came up. At sunset they would retire from the fields to their homes, or to other chores (John W. Blassingame, p. 155). A few slaves sent to a plantation, mostly children, the elderly, and the attractive, would work as domestic servants ("Slavery in the U.S.", p.1). These slaves were better dressed, fed, and often favored, but were no happier with their position than field workers. Domestic servants ran errands, worked as gardeners, cooked and served meals, cared for livestock, cared for the masters children, wove, spun wool, did the marketing, cleaned the house, churned the milk, and did many other tasks. These slaves had no regular hours, and had the discomfort of constantly being under the watchful eyes of the owner (John W. Blassingame, p.158). On smaller farms, farther north, slaves often had a more personal relationship with their master. They often worked aside their master. Domestic slaves were treated almost like family. How the slaves were treated depended on the master. If he saw blacks as equal, then he might befriend his slaves, or possibly free them. He may have just needed help on the farm and would have hired out if it had been more economical. A cruel master may see them as cattle that must be whipped into shape. For the most part, the basic needs of the slaves were met, no matter the feelings of the master. They had shelter, food, and clothing even if it was just a minimal amount or of poor quality (John W. Blassingame, p. 159). Slaves were punished for things like disobedience, attempted runaway, non-submission, dissatisfaction, learning to read or write, stealing, drunkenness, fighting, working too slowly, or attempting to prevent the sale of family members, along with many other reasons. Usually punishment was a flogging administered by an overseer. Non-violent means were administered whenever possible so as not to damage valuable property. These punishments included solitary confinement, humiliation, and extra work. A slaveholder, generally speaking had no desire to endanger a slaves life with punishment. However, occasionally passion took over a master causing him to kick, slap, or cuff a domestic servant and punish a slave so severely that it took weeks for him to recover. Any white man was allowed to police slaves, and punishments were often more severe when the one who punished was not the owner (John W. Blassingame, p162). Some of the more rebellious slaves received torturous punishments. Iron weights with bells were put on their necks to slow them down and to announce their whereabouts. Some slaves were covered with tar and set on fire. Others had toes, fingers, nails, and other body parts beaten off. Many were lashed until blood flowed profusely from their backs. Some slaves were victims of ferocious dog attacks and others were hung by their thumbs and beaten (John W. Blassingame, p. 162-164). Despite the control that the master exerted over his slaves, they still had a family life. In the South, slaves were usually allowed a monogamous family life. Although slave families did not legally exist, they were the most important survival mechanisms for the slaves. The family provided love, companionship, sexual gratification, and sympathetic understanding. It also taught cooperation, ways to avoid punishment, and increased self-esteem, despite how frequently it was split apart. It also let a slave feel power over something. Slave holders usually encouraged families to develop because a "married" slave was less likely to be rebellious or try to run away because of the threat of losing their families (John W. Blassingame, p. 78,80). The rearing of children was one of the most important parts of the slave family. Parents could teach their children to be happy with their lives, help them understand their situation, teach values different from those that the owners tried to instill, and help them maintain self-esteem (John W. Blassingame, p. 79). However, parents had little or no authority over their children except for the small amount of time spent alone in the cabin. During the day, young children were taken care of by the elderly and rarely saw their mothers. Slaves lived in small one-room log cabins, with dirt floors that were often shoddily built. The cabins contained a fireplace and any furniture the slaves made, usually a few beds, a bench, table, and utensils. The beds were corn shucks or straw laid on a board. Slaves might have one blanket for every three slaves, or none at all, as it was in some plantations. Usually two or more families lived in each cabin, or about nine people. Allowances of food were given weekly. Cornmeal and salt pork were generally given, and that was supplemented with vegetables from a slaves own garden and meat that he may have trapped or hunted. Only enoug

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