fermentation, photosynthesis, osmosis,

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This paper is on the processes of fermentation, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, diffusion, osmosis, and enzyme activity. What do these six processes have in common? Fermentation is a chemical process that breaks down organic materials. This process is carried out by such microbes as bacteria, molds, and yeasts. For example, molds or fungi act upon mixtures of molasses and mineral salts to produce penicillin. Yeast breaks down sugar gotten from malted grain into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide gas for use in beer. Sugar from grape juice is broken down in the same way for use in wine. Fermentation also is essential in the production of bread, cheese, and yogurt. In some cases, fermentation can be unhealthy. For example of fermentation being unhealthy is that fermented milk turns sour. You can get sick from sour milk. Cellular respiration is when oxygen is used in chemical reactions within the cells. These reactions release energy and produce carbon dioxide and water as waste products. Cellular respiration is the source of energy used to maintain life. energy in respiration is released, and reactants of respiration is glucose. Two products of respiration are CO2., and H2O. Photosynthesis is a food making process that forms in green plants. Photosynthesis is the chief function of leaves. The word photosynthesis means putting together with light. Green plants use energy from light to combine carbon dioxide and water to make food. All our food comes from this important energy-converting activity of green plants. Light energy is converted to chemical energy and is stored in the food that is made by green plants. Animals eat the plants, and we eat animal products as well as plants. In photosynthesis energy is stored, and reactants of photosynthesis are CO2, and H2O. Glucose is produced by photosynthesis. Diffusion is the mixing of the atoms or molecules of one substance with those of another. It is caused by the natural movements of atoms and molecules. Diffusion occurs readily in gases and liquids because of the constant and random motion of their atoms and molecules. The process takes place more rapidly in gases than in liquids. Molecules of gases are farther apart and collide less frequently than those of liquids--and collisions among molecules hinder diffusion. In solids, the molecules are arranged in rigid patterns and move very little. Therefore, diffusion does not occur in solids except under special conditions. Diffusion uses energy non-stop. The use of energy is used a lot in all of these processes. Osmosis is the movement of liquid from one solution through a special membrane into a more concentrated solution. The process is essential for the survival of living things. For example, plants absorb most of their water by osmosis. In animals, osmosis helps regulate the flow of water and nutrients between body fluids and cells. Industries reverse osmosis for such purposes as water purification and food preservation. An enzyme is a molecule that speeds up chemical reactions in all living things. Without enzymes, these reactions would occur too slowly or not at all, and no life would be

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