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Dionysus was the god of the vine. He invented wine and spread the art of tending grapes. He had a dual nature. On one hand, he brought joy and divine ecstasy. On the other hand, he brought brutality, thoughtlessness and rage. This reflected both sides of wine's nature. If he chooses, Dionysus can drive a man mad. No normal fetters can hold him or his followers. Dionysus was the son of Zeus and Semele. He was the only god to have a mortal parent. Zeus came to Semele in the night, invisible, felt only as a divine presence. Semele was pleased to be a lover of a god, even though she did not know which one. Word soon got around and Hera quickly realized who was responsible. Hera went to Semele in disguise and convinced her she should see her lover as he really was. When Zeus next came to her, she made him promise to grant her one wish. She went so far as to make him swear on the River Styx that he would grant her request. Zeus was madly in love and agreed. She then asked him to show her his true form. Zeus, was unhappy, and knew what would happen but, having sworn he had no choice. He appeared in his true form and Semele was instantly burnt to death by the sight of his glory. Zeus did manage to rescue Dionysus and stitched him into his thigh to hold him until he was ready to be born. His birth from Zeus alone conferred immortality upon him.Dionysus' problems with Hera were not yet over. She was still jealous and arranged for the Titans to kill him. The Titans ripped him into pieces. However, Rhea brought him back to life. After this, Zeus arranged for his protection and turned him over to the mountain nymphs to be raised. Dionysus wandered the world actively encouraging his cult. He was accompanied by the Maenads, wild women, flush with wine, shoulders draped with a fawn skin, carrying rods tipped with pine cones. While other gods had temples, the followers of Dionysus worshipped him in the woods. Here, they might go into mad states where they would rip apart and eat raw any animal they came upon. Dionysus was also one of the very few that was able to bring a dead person out of the underworld. Even though he had never seen Semele, he was concerned for her. Eventually he journeyed into the underworld to find her. He faced down Thanatos (Death) and brought her back to Mount Olympus. Dionysus became one of the most important gods in everyday life. He became associated with several key concepts. One was rebirth after death. Here his dismemberment by the Titans and return to life is symbolically echoed in tending vines, where the vines must be pruned back sharply, and then become dormant in winter for them to bear fruit. The other is the idea that under the influence of wine, one could feel possessed by a greater power. Unlike the other gods, Dionysus was not only outside his believers but, also within them. At these times, a man might be greater then himself and do works he otherwise could not. The festival for Dionysus is in the spring when the leaves begin to reappear on the vine. It became one of the most important events of the year. Its focus became the theater. Most of the great Greek plays were initially written to be performed at the feast of Dionysus. Those who took part, including writers, actors and spectators, were regarded as sacred servants of Dionysus during the festival. This is a god who gives pleasure to mankind: he discovered honey and the vine and its cultivation. But some say that it was Aristaeus who discovered honey and that he competed with his honey against the wine of Dionysus but Zeus gave the first prize to the wine. Some say that Oeneus, king of Calydon, was the first to receive a vine-plant from Dionysus. Dionysus formed the women (MAENADS) into an army and made a campaign over all the inhabited world. Dionysus is also known because of his Indian campaign. He also instructed all men in the knowledge of his rites, but he punished severely those who opposed him (like Lycurgus and Pentheus). He was attended by SATYRS, MAENADS and others. Semele was a daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia. Zeus fell in love with Semele and consorted with her. But Hera was jealous, and in order to delude Semele, Hera took the shape of Beroe, Semele's nurse, and told Semele to ask Zeus to come to her as he comes to Hera, so that she would know what pleasure it is to sleep with a god. At her suggestion Semele made this request to Zeus and was smitten by a thunderbolt. Later Dionysus brought up his mother from Hades, named her Thyone, ascended with her to heaven and there she was made immortal by Zeus. After Semele's death Zeus carried the unborn child in his thigh. When the child was born Zeus brought him to Nysa in Arabia where the boy was reared by NYMPHS. But it is also said that Hermes entrusted Dionysus to Athamas and Ino, and persuaded them to rear him as a girl. But Hera (or Tisiphone) drove them mad, and Athamas hunted his elder son Learchus as a deer and killed him. The CORYBANTES are also named as guardians of Dionysus in his growing days. The HYADES are sometimes said to have been the nurses of Dionysus and to have been put to flight by Lycurgus, king of the Edonians (Thrace) or the Arabians, who was the first to expel Dionysus. Or else, river NYMPHS (NYMPHS LAMUSIDES), took care of the child Dionysus, but they were maddened by Hera. Hera hated him so much that she promised Artemis to the giant Alcyoneus if he would fight against Dionysus. And to the giant Chthonius she promised Aphrodite if he would do the same thing. Hera incited also the giant Peloreus against Dionysus and to the giant Porphyrion she promised Hebe as his wife if he would fight Dionysus. Hera drove Dionysus mad and when Dionysus was afflicted with madness he came to a large swamp which he could not cross. He was then met by two Asses and one of them carried him across the water so that he could reach a temple of Zeus. When Dionysus came to the temple he was freed at once from his madness and, feeling gratitude for the Asses he put them among the stars (Asellus Borealis and Asellus Australis in Cancer) and gave human voice to the Ass which had carried him. This Ass is said to be the saddle-ass of Silenus, a Satyr adviser and instructor of Dionysus. He came to Cybela in Phrygia where Rhea, the mother of the gods, purified him and taught him the rites of initiation. He then came to Thrace where Lycurgus was king of the Edonians, who lived beside the river Strymon. This Lycurgus was the first to insult Dionysus and expel him. Dionysus learned of the plot of Lycurgus against him from Charops, the grandfather of Orpheus, and he conquered the Thracians in a battle and killed Lycurgus, or else Lycurgus was maddened by the god and killed himself. Thereupon, out of gratitude to Charops for his aid, Dionysus made over to him the kingdom of the Thracians and instructed him in the secret rites connected with the initiations. Later the son of Charops took over both the kingdom and the initiatory rites. It is also said that when Dionysus was persecuted by Lycurgus he took refuge in the sea with Thetis the Nereid, while the MAENADS were taken prisoners together with the SATYRS that attended him. But when the MAENADS were released, and Dionysus drove Lycurgus mad, the latter struck his son dead with an axe, imagining that he was lopping a branch of a vine, and having cut off his son's extremities, he recovered his mind. Others say that Lycurgus was almost killed by the MAENADS but was saved by Hera and made immortal, but first he was driven mad by Zeus so that no other man should be as proud as he. It is also told that the Edonians themselves bound him to horses which rent him in pieces, because they believed Dionysus who had said that the land would not bear fruit until Lycurgus was put to death. When Dionysus came to Thebes, he forced the women to abandon their houses and rave in Bacchic frenzy on Cithaeron. King Pentheus attempted to put a stop to these proceedings, but he was torn limb from limb by his mother, who believed him to be a wild beast, or by the MAENADS. After Thebes Dionysus came to Argos, and because they did not wish to honor him, he drove the women mad, and they devoured the infants whom they carried at their breasts to the mountains. On another occasion Dionysus desired to sail from Icaria to Naxos. He then hired a Tyrrhenian pirate ship. But when Dionysus was on board, they sailed not to Naxos but to Asia, intending to sell him as a slave. So Dionysus turned the mast and oars into snakes, and filled the vessel with ivy and the sound of flutes so that the SAILORS went mad, and leaping into the sea, were turned into d

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