The Free essays given on our site were donated by anonymous users and should not be viewed as samples of our custom writing service. You are welcome to use them to inspire yourself for writing your own term paper. If you need a custom term paper related to the subject of Ancient Greek or Greek Fire , you can hire a professional writer here in just a few clicks.
“GREEK FIRE” The original Greek fire was an invention used as a weapon of the Eastern Roman Emperors. It is also said to have been invented by a Syrian engineer, one Callinicus, a refugee from Maalbek, in the seventh century. The Byzantines of Constantinople originally used it. But they never used the term Greek fire because they claimed to be Romans, and never called themselves Greeks. It was like an insult to them because in their times to be Greek was to have a bad reputation. The Greek fire was first time used in the war of seven years. In which the Arabs established a naval base on the peninsula of Kyzikos. This was on the second attack of a battle started by Theophanes. On the third attack of the same battle, Greek fire was used again against the Arabs. The “liquid fire” was hurled on the ships of their enemies from siphons and burst into flames on contact. As it was reputed to be inextinguishable and burned even on water, it caused panic and dread. Its introduction into warfare of its time was comparable in its demoralizing to the introduction of nuclear weapons in our time. Both Arab and Greek sources agree that it surpassed all incendiary weapons in destruction. It is also possible that Greek fire was really invented by the chemist in Constantinople who had acquired the discoveries of the Alexandrian chemical school. An Emperor, Constantine Porphyrogenitus, said that the recipe for Greek fire had been revealed by an angel to Constantine the Great, and that the earliest chemists called their science “the divine art.” Constantine Porphyrogenitus (tenth century) in his instruction to his son had commanded him emphatically to keep the composition secret: “The secret had in the past been given by an angel to Constantine the Great, those imparting it were anathema, and one about to communicate it had been struck by lightning. Anna Komnena (b.1083), the gifted but vain daughter of the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, gives the composition of an incendiary material: “This fire made by the following arts. From the pines and the certain such evergreen trees inflammable resin is collected. This is rubbed with sulfur and put into tubes of reed, and is blowing by men using it with violent and continuos breath. Then in this manner it meets the fire on the tip and catches light and falls like a fiery whirlwind on the faces of the enemies.” She also says it was used in the siege of Durazzo in 1108, when the Normans under Bohemond had mined under the walls, and the Byzantines had countermined until they reached the sap, when the appearance produced by these pyrotechnics would be terrifying but not very dangerous. The Normans, she said, had their beards signed but were not much injured. Kedrenos reported that in his time (eleventh century) the secret of the fire was possessed by Lampros, a descendant of Kallinikos. The state chemist who had the recipe, a secret not to put into writing, no doubt took an oath not to divulge it. And the Emperor, who lent troops and engines to his allies, reserved for himself the secret of Greek fire, and sent it already made as a sort of ancient hydrogen bomb to his worthy but not wholly reliable dependants. It was thought that the secret of Greek fire had been lost; a Dupre, born in Dauphine, claimed to have redisco

Our inspirational collection of essays and research papers is available for free to our registered users

Related Essays on Ancient Greek

The Greek Orthodox Church

The Greek Orthodox ChurchThe Greek Orthodox Church is one of the three major branches of Christianity, which "stands in today's society as one of the communities created by the apostles of Jesu...

read more
Greek Values Through Antigone

Greek Values Through Antigone Antigone reflects the worldviews and cultural values of the Greeks through honor, fighting for her will and the right thing, and destiny. Antigone showed honor becaus...

read more
The Ultimate Revenge From Medea

The Ultimate Revenge In ancient Greek times, it is alright if a man wants revenge on another man for hurting him or his loved ones. The man who causes the other man s misery is partially responsib...

read more
Alexander The Great

ALEXANDER THE GREAT Alexander the Great was a great military leader. He was very inspiring and listened to his troops. He followed in the footsteps of his father, King Phillip II, who taught...

read more
Greek And Christian Gods

Greek and Christian Gods Throughout the ages religion has been a very important part of history. It shaped many cultures and allowed us to further understand numerous civilizations. Through ...

read more
Greek Heroes

The Irony of Being A Hero Heroes played many roles in Greek mythology, where several people were tried and admired in a variety of ways. The Greeks consider heroes as people who go on an e...

read more