Biology

212 total

Today, all multicellular organism are composed of eukaryotic cells which are larger and more complex than prokaryotes. These eukaryotic cells consist of organelles, such as mitochondria and peroxisomes, which were once believed to have been prokaryotes. We will find that these two organelles, which have triumphed through evolution, serve important functions within cells. We will begin with peroxisomes which are believed to have been engulfed by a larger, eukaryotic, primitive phagocyt

The Modern Synthesis is the theory used to explain and predict all of the traits, variation and changes in living things. It combines the older theories of evolution and Mendelian genetics with more recent discoveries in molecular genetics and cellular biology. Pheno- and genotypical changes can be explained and observed on the molecular, cellular, individual and populace scale through the modern synthesis. Most multicellular plants and animals reproduce sexually; each parent contributing hal

In the past 300 million years, an innumerable variety of vertebrate species have evolved from the bony fishes of the early Paleozoic. At several points in evolutionary history, there have been periods of relatively rapid adaptation and expansion of organisms known as adaptive radiations. These are limited only by a speciesO adaptive potential and the adaptive opportunities of the environment. There have been three major adaptive radiations of terrestrial vertibrates. The first of these wa

Leprosy Report Leprosy has been around for thousands of years, since the biblical times. It was first identified by Gerhard A. Hansen in 1873. It was the first bacterium to be identified as disease causing in humans. It should be known that the word 'leper' has connotations of immorality and uncleanness and is considered very offensive. Leprosy is a chronic bacterial disease of the upper respiratory tract, skin, nerves in the hands and feet, and the lining of the nose. Leprosy is unco

1. In order to grow and survive an organism must metabolize. In order to metabolize, an organism must have access to nutrients and O2 at the cellular level. Within the kingdom Animalia, there are several solutions to the problem of delivery of said nutrients and O2. Discuss, in a written format, the various internal structural adaptations (their form and function) associated with each of the four heart configurations discussed in class which facilitate the delivery of nutrients starting at th

Definitions: Cell Wall A structure made of cellulose that is, in the plant, responsible for many tasks. Firstly, it maintains the shape of the cell, and secondly it protects the cell from external forces. It also serves as a connector between the cell in question and its neighboring cells. Cell Membrane A thin and flexible membrane used to hold the cell together (the example given in the text was: "Like a sausage skin"). Since it is semi-permeable, it prevents unwanted materials from en

Bacteria Bacteria is a simple organism that consist of one cell. They are among the smallest living thing on earth. Most bacteria measures from about 0.3 to 2.0 microns in diameter, and can only be seen through a microscope. Scientist classify bacteria according to shape. Cocci are round and sometimes linked together. Bacilli look like rods, and Vibrios resembles bent rods. There are two types of spiral-shaped bacteria, spirochetes and spirilla. Bacteria exist almost anywhere you

Hearing Loss Not more than a few decades ago deaf children would never learn to speak. They would be referred to as deaf mutes and people thought that the reason they had a hearing loss and couldn't speak was because their brain functioned wrong and they didn't know how to use their vocal cords. Scientific research and technology have proven that these two theories are wrong and that people with a hearing loss can indeed talk. They just need lots of encouragement and hard work at learning pr

Debates on Bioethics have been a central and key in society's thoughts on new and involved medical science, as it conflicts with our own predetermined morals and value judgements. The more advanced our medicine becomes the more we must question, how much should we know about each other, as well as how much should we know about ourselves? The presented case, that of Susan M., provides an interesting look at the right of a parents knowledge of their child's prenatal condition, as well as the do

Lupus Lupus is an autoimmune disorder which means that the body's immune system is not functioning normal and it's attacking the normal tissue, instead of the bactieria and viruses or in other words the body's immune system is hurting itself. The body is just reacting to unknown stimilus and it makes too many antibodies, or proteins directed against body tissue. It's the complete opposite that happens in A.I.D.S. and Cancer a virus or disease breaks down in the immune system unlike Lup