El riesgo de la entrada de nuevos competidores en el sector de bebidas carbonatadas es bajo. Ya que se necesitan muchos recursos econÃ³micos para poder crear marca y el reconocimiento de la marca, es una ventaja competitiva en el sector que diferencia los refrescos entre los consumidores. Por el contrario el riesgo de la entrada de productos sustitutos si parece ser notable. En el 1992 las ventas en estados unidos de bebidas carbonatadas aumentaron solo 1.5% mientras que las b
Collective Bargaining, in labor relations, negotiations between employers and employees about terms and conditions of employment. The bargaining process is concerned with wages, working hours, fringe benefits, job Security, safety, and other matter relating to working conditions. Any or all of these may be the subject of consideration. Besides representatives of management and unions, private mediators and government officials sometimes participate, es
On August 12, 1994 professional baseball players went on strike for the eighth time in the sports' history. Since 1972, negotiations between the union and owners over contract terms has led to major economic problems and the absence of a World Series in 1994. All issues were open for debate due to the expiration of the last contract. Until 1968, no collective bargaining agreement had ever been reached between the owners and the players (Dolan 11). Collective bargaining is the
Of the eight stages involved in the new-product development process, commercialization is where the rubber meets the road. A complete market strategy for commercializing a new product must consider when, where, how, and to whom the product will be introduced. While market-entry timing, geographic rollout market identification, and early adopter/heavy user/opinion leader identification is critical, it is the execution of the introductory market strategy that will ultimately spell su
Copyrights are designed to provide some form of protection against unauthorized use of original informational materials. The rapid shift of information production and distribution to electronic form, with its corresponding ease of copying, naturally makes copyright-dependent industries nervous. Much talk in the news and on the net these days is about the future of copyright law, a law developed in an age of print and now perhaps too tied to that medium to have ready application to
As we have witnessed the rolling blackouts and emergency alerts throughout many parts of our state of California within the past 12 months, there is a question waiting to be answered. Why do we have an energy crisis when there are other states that are doing just fine? Before we come to any hasty conclusion, let us ask ourselves what happened to the energy policy during the mid 90s? During that period the electric utilities went from being highly regulated to being deregula
"Anything that's got my name on it, I open, because you never know what it will be," comments one focus group participant in a recent study of direct mail trends commissioned by the Graphic Arts Marketing Information Service (GAMIS) of PIA. In the late 1800s, Richard W. Sears, a railroad clerk in North Redmond, Minnesota, acquired an abandoned case of pocket watches. Using his list of other railroad clerks throughout the Midwest, he marketed his watches with great success.
Modern China is an enigmatic country by today's standards concerning economic values and political ideals. The "communist" government that Mao Zedong brutally sculpted and administered has gone through an intensive transformation. The days when Marxism and Socialism supposedly provided guidelines for Chinese economic policies have passed. Now the government exists as a quasi-communist authoritarian regime supported by a market economy. Economic progress is commonly associated
Leadership characteristics can be generalized as either autocratic or democratic. The autocratic leader tends to lead by authority and uses coercive power. Oppositely, the democratic leader will delegate authority and use expert and referent power to influence employees. One difference between a mechanistic structure and an organic structure in an organization is the chain of command. Similarly, a difference between an autocratic and a democratic leader is how decisions are made.
The economy was strong, inflation was falling, and real GNP was growing at a steady, confident pace. Corporate profits had reached historically high levels, and investors were on a buying spree in the stock market, pushing it from one record close to the next. Unemployment had fallen to a level that many economists felt was consistent with non-accelerating inflation. Expectations of inflation were abated, and the boom seemed to be poised to last for a long time, with no economi