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In Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy, he offers two main arguments from which he concludes the existence of God. In the Third Meditation, Descartes proposes his metaphysical argument, which states that God must exist, because his real existence is the only cause, which could have produced Descartes’ own idea of God. In the Fifth Meditation, Descartes contends that existence is contained in God’s essence, so a non-existent God is by definition, a contradiction. This pape

Plato vs. Materialists Plato was concerned with Epistemology. Epistemology deals with the possibilities and limits of human knowledge. It tries to arrive at a knowledge of knowledge itself. It tries to answer such questions as: Is the world as people perceive it the basic reality, or do people perceive only appearances that conceal basic reality? Knowledge may be regarded as having two parts. There is, first of all, what one perceives using the five senses. Next there is the way these p

Searching for Utopia After the French Revolution many men began a search for a utopian society, one which would allow justice and happiness for all who resided there. It was not only a search for these men, but a lifelong goal, for if such a place created many of life's problems would disappear. In order to make this vision come to life, the principles and laws that would create such a society must be understood. It was men such as Saint-Simon, Fourier, Jefferson, Owen, Bentham, Malthus an

Happiness, to Aristotle, is a term for which much exactitude must be made. He understands that, “Happiness both the refined and the few call it, but about the nature of this Happiness, men dispute.” As such, he goes to great lengths to attain a fairly accurate accounting of what he sees as Happiness. He begins by illustrating that Happiness is an End, establishes what he finds the work of Man to be, sets conditions on being happy, and then explains where in Man the cultivati

Logic is the study of necessary truths and of systematic methods for clearly expressing and rigourously demonstrating such truths. THERE can be no doubt that all our knowledge begins with experience. For how should our faculty of knowledge be awakened into action did not objects affecting our senses partly of themselves produce representations, partly arouse the activity of our understanding to compare these representations, and, by combining or separating them, work up the raw material of th

The Rationalism of Descartes and Leibniz Although philosophy rarely alters its direction and mood with sudden swings, there are times when its new concerns and emphases clearly separate it from its immediate past. Such was the case with seventeenth-century Continental rationalism, whose founder was Rene Descartes and whose new program initiated what is called modern philosophy. In a sense, much of what the Continental rationalists set out to do had already been attempted by the medieva

Creationism vs. Evolution- In my short life on this planet I have come to question things that many take upon blind faith. We all know that we must some day die; yet we continuously deny the forces at work inside ourselves, which want to search out the answers of what may or may not come after. It is far easier for humanity to accept that they will go to a safe haven and be rewarded for their lives with pleasures and fantasies of an unfathomable scale than to question the existenc

My Philosophy of Balance Balance. Our world depends upon it physically, psychologically, and spiritually. This principle, although easy to overlook, is the foundation of my personal philosophy. Without balance there is no harmony, no conflict and no growth. Any productive result, any achievement, any strength is useless without it. The balance in my world is achieved by these fundamental beliefs: God exists, and yet evil exists; all humanity does have free will and all these beliefs

Living in the Face of Death Life was good... Life was good until... Life was good until death. Death was bad... Death was bad until... Death was bad until life. ___________________________________________ She sat there mourning the death of her husband. He had lain there dying from cancer for a period of time to painful to remember. Now he was gone—the space left behind a haunting reminder of what had once been. Oh soul, which lives in the shadow of death, raise your h

Descartes is considered to be the father of modern Western philosophy, he was a man who was both loved and hated at the same time. Descartes discusses many topics during his time and one of them was his Discourse on the Method of rightly conducting ones reason and seeking the truth in the sciences. There are six parts to the Discourse and Part One is about Descartes education and his philosophical views on good sense. Method is defined as the rules by which our powers of intuition and deduc